Certificate course in Forensic Science
Forensic science is one most important discipline of knowledge and skill that is key to decide any criminal and civil investigation and judicial process. understanding of Forensic science surely enhances the scope of lawyer and judge in his routine duties. Lloyd Law College with the aim of expanding the horizons of our students in legal practice and profession introduces a Practical Course in Forensic Science in campus.
Forensic science is defined as the application of science in answering questions that are of legal interest. More specifically, forensic scientists employ techniques and tools to interpret crime scene evidence and use that information in investigations. Forensic scientists and technicians come from a variety of academic backgrounds, although most have completed coursework in the life sciences, chemistry and law enforcement.
Scope of Forensic Science:
Forensic science has shaped the world of justice, fuelling crime investigations and signifying the progress of modern technology.
- Preparation for Arguments on charge (Interpretation of M.L.C, Postmortem reports & other forensic reports help the Lawyer to argue on charge)
- Preparation for the cross-examination of the witnesses (Forensic Experts, Medical Experts, Doctors etc.)
- To understand the Technical terms to interpret the Forensic evidences.
- Preparation for final Arguments by connecting the Interpretation of Forensic evidences with the applicable provisions of Law.
- Study of Crime Scene Reports, crime scene photographs, Site Plan etc.
Forensic science of today covers:
- Modern computer/clay facial reconstruction;
- DNA fingerprinting;
- Autopsy techniques;
- Forensic anthropology;
- Toxicology and much more.
Types of Evidence:
- Biological Evidence
- DNA Evidence:
- Trace Evidence:
- Currency Notes
- Driving License
- Pan card
Psychological evaluation is regarded as the key to human brain in crime investigation. There are certain steps to be followed in psychological evaluation, which includes:
- Psychological profiling
- Psychological assessment
- Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profile (BEOS)
Types of crime scenes
Collection of evidences
Maintenance of Crime Records
Study of Crime reports
Cyber Forensics: It is the art and science of applying computer science to aid the legal process. Although plenty of science is attributable to computer forensics, most successful investigators possess a nose for investigations and a skill for solving puzzles, which is where the art comes in. - Chris L.T. Brown, Computer Evidence Collection and Preservation, 2006.
Common types of Cyber Crime in India:
- Financial Crimes
- Cyber Pornography
- Sale od illegal article
- Online gambling
- Intellectual Property Crimes
- Email Spoofing
- Cyber Defamation
- Cyber stalking
Steps involved in Cyber forensics:
- Identification: identify the media to be seized
- Seizure: use the right technique to seize the media
- Acquisition: making a forensic duplicate of the media
- Authentication: validation of forensic duplicate
- Analysis: techniques to look for evidence
- Presentation: putting together all the findings
- Preservation: storage of the suspect media
It is a science embodying the knowledge, source, character, fatal effect, lethal dose, analysis of poisons and the remedial measures.
It is a substance which is capable of producing injury or death to living beings, when ingested or absorbed. Eg: LD 50 (Lethal Dose): It is a dose of a substance causing death of 50% animals. Extremely toxic substance weighs less than 5mg
Conclusion: Forensic science plays an integral role in the criminal justice system. Well-trained forensic scientists and medical examiners can be the determining factor in the ability of evidence to adequately represent the facts of a case. Forensic science can be used in almost any criminal case; however, investigations of homicide, rape, and arson are those that benefit the most from forensic science. Everyone is familiar with the television show “C.I.D.” While this show involves a lot of idealism, and often times skews the reality of forensic science, at its core “C.I.D. represents the importance that quality forensic science can play in a complicated case. In complicated cases, and even in relatively simple ones, the most minute of details can become paramount to a successful prosecution or defence. Forensic scientists are trained to analyze crime scenes, evidence, and personal testimony to create a visualization of how a crime occurred. An understanding of the circumstances surrounding a crime is pivotal to ensuring that the correct charges are brought against the correct person. The mishandling or misinterpretation of evidence can be devastating to the goals of the criminal justice system and can result in the wrongful conviction of innocent persons and the failure to convict the true perpetrator, which is why you need a skilled criminal defense lawyer in Knoxville if you’ve been convicted of a criminal offense. Conversely, correctly applied forensic science ensures that justice is served, and innocent persons remain free.
CERTIFICATE IN FORENSIC SCIENCE (ONE YEAR)
PAPER-I: FORENSIC SCIENCE -I
Forensic Science: Definitions, History-development-present scope of forensic science and its utilization at the scene of crime and in the courts. Principles, tools and techniques, problem of proof, evidentiary clues, set-up and function of Forensic science laboratory.
Role and functions of police in general and with reference to Delhi Police, Police and forensic scientist relationships with reference to crime investigation, maintenance of crime records; maintained by Finger Print Bureau and Police. Law of Police Administration in India.
Definitions, concepts of crime, causes of crime, prevention of crime. Criminal Law: Indian evidence act (32, 45, 73, 137, 159), criminal procedure code (292,293), Indian Penal Code (sections-299, 302, 304B, 306,307, 326, 375, 376, 377).Presentation of scientific evidence in Courts and its Legal Acceptance; Including Cross-Examination Techniques and Testimony of Expert witness.
Crime scene investigation: Understanding and purposes of crime scene examination and investigation, Physical evidence, its collection, packing and transportation, chain of custody.
PAPER-II: FORENSIC SCIENCE II
UNIT-A:- Medical Jurisprudence:-
History, scope and set up of medical jurisprudence, identification of living and the dead ,time of death and manner of death with reference to wounds and injuries including drowning ,burning ,strangulation ,firearms abuse etc. Rape, carnal knowledge, abortions, infanticides, suicides. Post-mortem and its role in all cases of death including poisoning, collection and preservation of viscera . Expert medical evidences in court.
UNIT-B :- Forensic Biology
Introduction, composition of blood and identification of Human Blood Types. Detection and Study of different biological stains (Semen, Sweat, Vomit, saliva, Urine etc). Study of Hair, Fibers etc. Deter importance of various biological evidences (hair, fiber, pollens, wood), collection and evaluation in general, bite marks, Intro and importance of DNA profiling and various techniques to identify D.N.A. e.g F.T.A technique etc.
UNIT-C FORENSIC CHEMISTRY AND TOXICOLOGY
Introduction of common drugs of abuse, their classification and general characteristics as exemplified by opium and allied drugs, alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines, cannabis and LSD, Testing procedures. Isolation and identification of synthetic ,organic ,vegetables and study of vegetable poisons , pesticides and their method of analysis , definition and classification of poisons, poisoning trends in India, A brief introduction to extraction, isolation and identification of commonly used poisons (insecticides/pesticides, vegetable poisons, metallic poisons).
UNIT-D: - FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY
Study of human skeleton remains including long bones, skull and pelvis. Determination of age, sex, height etc from skeleton remains. Measurement and study of different bones to determine sex ,age and height. Measurements on skull, calculation of important indices-determination of age and sex from skull/pelvis.
PAPER-II: FORENSIC SCIENCE III
UNIT-A:-Document and Finger Print Examination
Introduction, importance, classification, nature, problems and preliminary examination of documents, alteration in documents: erasures, obliteration and their examination. Characteristics of handwriting, forgery, disguise, examination methods, standards of comparison, examination of typescripts, printed matters and examination of currency and passport etc. History and development, various fingerprints patterns, classification, role of fingerprints in personal identification. Development and examination of fingerprints, chance prints, latent finger prints, palm prints, shoe impressions: importance and examination.
UNIT-B:-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL EVIDENCES
Determination of Physical properties of
materials, Optical Properties including microscopic and stereo-scopic
examination as well as visible ultra violet and infrared
spectrophotometary, X-rays in Crime Detection etc
Tool marks: Importance, location, nature, collection and evaluation. Restoration of serial numbers and marks: Importance and techniques
Track marks: Importance, nature, location, collection and evaluation.
Road accidents: Methods of investigation
Trace evidences: Importance,
nature, collection and evaluation as exemplified by paint, glass, soil,
cosmetics, detective dyes.
Voice identification: Introduction and importance.
Lie-detection: Concept, forensic applications and limitations
Cyber Forensic: Introduction of cyber Forensic and cyber-crimes, investigation method, study of latest technologies used in cyber forensics , Ethical Hacking , Data Security and analysis etc,
Forensic Ballistics and Photography: Nature, scope and definitions, classification and characteristics of modern and country made firearms. Concept of bullets and cartridge cases examinations, reconstruction of shooting incidents. Introduction, Crime scene Photography, Role of photography in crime scene investigation, modern photographic techniques.
PAPER-IV : PROJECT REPORT
- Every candidate will have to submit a comprehensive project report based on practical demonstrations and visit to various forensic science institutions. The report will be evaluated of the internal and external examiners based on viva-voce conducted on the report.
- Students are required to present a seminar/presentation on the topics allotted to them.
- Note: Overall emphasis has to be laid down on demonstrative aspects. The best demonstration would be provided by visit to various forensic science institutions/police stations/courts and other centers dealing with criminal justice system.
Fundamental of forensic science , MAX M.
Forensic Science and crime Investigation, B.S. NABAR
Abbot: Footwear evidence, 1964, Charles C.
Bare Acts with Short note: Identification of Prisoners Act.
Boorman and Dodd: Blood Group Serology, Churchill, London, 1988.
Brewster, F. Contested Documents and Forgeries. The Eastern Law House,
Bridges: Practical Finger Printing, 1942, Funk and Washalls Co. New York
Brunelle, Richard, L: Questioned Documents examination in Forensic Science
Handbook, NJ Prentice Hall, Inc. 1982.
Burrad, 1951: The Identification of Firearms and Forensic Ballistics.
Casarett & Doll Toxicology: The Basic Science of poisons
Chatterjee, S.K. (1967): Finger, Palm and Sale Prints, Kosa Publishers, Calcutta
Chatterjee, C.C. (1975): Human Physiology
Chowdhuri, S. (1971): Forensic Biology, BPR & D, Govt. of India.
Clarke's: Isolation and Identification a/Drugs, The Pharmaceuticals Press, London, 1986.
Combat Computer Crime: Prevention, Detection, Investigation, 1992,
Chantico Publishing Company, Inc., New York, U.S.A.
Culliford, B.E. (1971): The Examination and Typing of Blood Stains, US Deptt. Justice, Washington
Cummins & Midlo: Finger Prints. Palms and Soles. 1943, The Blackston office, London.
Curry, AS.: Poison Detection in Human Organs, 1976.
Davis, E. Tool marks, Firearms and Striagraph.
Deforest, Gaensellen and Lee: Introduction to Criminalistics.
Demao: Gunshot Wounds, 1987.
Erikson: Blood group serology.
Glaister (Ed.) (1973): Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh.
Gray's Anatomy (1987): Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh.
Hardless, H.R. (1997): Disputed Documents examination and Finger-Prints identification, the Law book company (P) Ltd., Allahabad.
Harris, A.S. (1965): Methods of Forensic Science, Vol. IV, Interscience, New York.
Harrison, W.R.: Suspect Documents & their Scientific Examination, 1966, Sweet & Maxwell Ltd., London.
Hatcher Jury & Weller, 1987: Firearm Investigation and Evidence. The University Book Agency, Allahabad.
Hilton, O.: The Scientific Examination of Questioned Document, 1982, Elsevier North Holland Inc., New York.
Holfmann, F.G. : Handbook of Drug and Alcohol abuse.
Jauhri, M. (198O):Identification of firearms, ammunition and Firearm
injuries, (BPRD), Govt. of India Publication.
Kholar & Meyer, (1993): Explosive, 4th revision edition.
Kirby: DNA Fingerprinting Technology.
Krogman, w.M. And Iscan, M. (1987): Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine, Charles & Thomas, U.S.A.
Kumar: Forensic Ballistics in Criminal Justice, 1987.
Lanquest and Curry: Forensic Science, Vol. I to IV, 1963, Charles C. Thomas, Illinois, U.S.A.
Lee & Gaensllen: Advances in Finger-Print Technology. 1993.
Lee & Gaensslen: Advances in Forensic Science, (Vol.2)
Lionel Haward: Forensic Psychology, 1981, Batsford Academic and Education Ltd., Loffdon.
Maehly & Williams: Forensic Science Progress (The new series of Forensic Science) 6 Vol. set.
Mehta, M.K.: Identification of Thumb Impression & Cross Examination of Finger Prints, 1980, N.M. Tripathi (P) Ltd., Bombay.
Modi s: Medical Jurisprudence & Toxicology, M.M. Tripathi Press Ltd., Allahabad.
Mukherjee, J.B.: Forensic Medicine &Forensic Toxicology.
Najjar and Macwilliams (1978): Forensic Anthropology.
NRC: DNA Technology in Forensic Science, Washington, DC.O Hara and Osterburg: Introduction to Criminalistics. The MacMillan Co. 1949. USA.
Osbom, A.S.: Problems of Proof, The Essex Press, New York, (1926). .
Osborn, A.S.: Questioned Documents. 1929, Boyd Printing Co., Chicago, U.S.A.
P.L. Kirk: Crime Investigation, 1953, Interscience Publisher Inc. New York.
Pandey. J.N.: Indian Constitution.
Rattan Lal and Dhiraj Lal: Indian Evidence Act.
Rattan Lal and Dhiraj Lal: Indian Penal Code.
Richardson: Scientific Evidence.
Saferstein: Criminalistics, 1976, Prentice Hall Inc., USA.
Saferstein: Forensic Science Handbook, Vol. I, II, & III, Prentice Hall Inc. USA.
Saxena, B.L.: (1964), Law & Techniques Relating to Finger Prints, Foot Prints & Detection of Forgery, Central law Agency, Allahabad.
Sharma: Bank Frauds (Prevention and detection), 1990.
Sharma, B.R. : Footprints Tracksand Tails, 1980, Central Law Agency, Allahabad.
Sharma, B.R. : Forearms in Criminal Investigation and Trails, 1990.
Sharma, B.R. : Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trials,
Central Law Agency. Allahabad, 1998.
Stromberg: Chemical Criminalistics, 1980.
Swanson and Wendel: Techniques of Crime Scene Investigation.
Tandon, M.P. : Criminal Procedure Code.
Tiwari, S.N.: Analytical Toxicology, Govt. of India Publications, New Delhi. 1987.
Walb & Brounds: Drunks, Drugs & Driving
Whitaker. D.K. and MacDonald, D.U. (1989): Forensic Dentistry.
Wolfe Medical Publications Limited.
Willard. H.H. et al: Instrumental Methods of Analysis. 1974.
Yallop : Explosion Investigation, 1980.